Posts Tagged 'XML'

LaTeX and TEI

We have talked in previous posts about some of the most important and successful markup languages that we can find nowadays such as, for instance, HTML, XML or XHTML. However, in today’s post I am briefly going to mention and introduce two markup languages – LaTeX and TEI – that could be new to some of you in spite of their great utility in some specific fields of knowledge.



The first markup language that we are going to study today is LaTeX, which was created in 1984 by Leslie Lamport in order to make easier the use of Donald Knuth’s TeX. This markup language is widely accepted among mathematicians, scientists, engineers, philosophers, economists and other scholars due to its ability to write academic and technical books containing mathematic signs and formulae.

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Third debate in the Moodle forum

A markup language is an artificial language that uses a set of annotations to text that give information about the structure of the text or how it must be displayed. There are more than one markup language but, probably, the most popular ones are the HTML and the XML because of their massive use in the World Wide Web. Both of them have its origin in the SGML but after analysing them we can find some differences:

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Web content, in depth

When we talk about content we are referring to a piece of information that, for any reason, is valuable for users and that could be delivered by different media such as the Internet, books, television, audio CD’s, or even live events like conferences, presentations or expositions.

Content architecture representation

Content architecture representation

 Today, however, we are going to focus and put the stress on the accurate analysis of the Web content and its development. First of all, let’s define what we should understand by Web content development. We call Web content development to the process of researching, gathering and editing information for publication on Web sites. Web site content may consist of texts, graphics, pictures, movies… distributed by a hypertext protocol server, and viewed by a Web browser. Surprisingly, Louis Rosenfeld and Peter Morville, two important information architecture researchers, also include in the Web content the future applications of the Web that do not exist right now.

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Markup languages, from printer to the Web

A markup language is an artificial language that uses a set of annotations to text that give information about the structure of the text or how it must be displayed. The term ‘markup’ comes from the traditional publishing practice of marking up’ a manuscript, what involves adding symbolic printer’s instructions in the margins. For centuries, this task was done by skilled typographers known as ‘markup men’ who took down these symbols in the texts to indicate what typeface, style, and size should be applied to each part. Markup languages have been applied by editors, proofreaders, and graphic designers, and recently have been used in computer typestting and word-processing systems too.

A specialized markup language based on SGML is used in the digital version of the Oxford English Dictionary.

A specialized markup language based on SGML is used in the digital version of the Oxford English Dictionary.

The first idea about a markup language in this computer science world that we are studying appeared in 1967 thanks to William W. Tunnicliffe, who led the development of a standard called GenCode for the publishing industry and later was a chair of the International Organization for Standardization committee. However, the IBM researcher Charles Goldfarb is considered the ‘father’ of markup languages because of his work at the SGML committee, the first widely used descriptive markup language.

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